The Governor of a state, his roles and responsibilities

The Governor of a state, his roles and responsibilities

The Governor is the state head. The Governor is the nominal head of a state, whereas the Chief Minister is the executive head. In the name of the Governor only all executive actions are taken for the particular state. But, in reality the actions only need his consent. The governor may not be necessary to take any major decisions. The Chief Minister and the Council of Ministers only have real powers in executing dealings of the state.

According to an amendment to the Indian Constitution in 1956, the same person can be the governor of two or more states. Besides the state governors, Lieutenant governors are appointed in Puducherry, Union Territories of Delhi, Andaman & Nicobar Island. An IAS Officer governs all other union-territories except Chandigarh. The Punjab governor is also the Chandigarh’s Lieutenant governor. The powers of the Lieutenant Governor of a union-territory are same as any governor of India. The Indian President only appoints Governor and the Lieutenant Governor for 5 years.

Powers of the Governor

Like the Indian President, any state Governor has certain legislative, executive and judicial powers. The governor possesses emergency powers. However, any Governor of India does not have any military or diplomatic powers as the Indian President.

Executive powers

The Governor has the authority to appoint the Council of Ministers including Chief Minister, the members of the State Public Service Commission and the Advocate General. However, he cannot remove the members from the State PSS as it can be only done by the Indian President.

The District Courts judges are appointed by the Governor

While appointing the Judges of the State High Court, the Governor has to consult the Indian President.

Legislative powers

Every year the Governor inaugurates the first session of the state legislature by addressing the Assembly.

The Governor submits the annual financial statement before the State Legislature and also demands grants and recommendation of “Money Bills”

The State Finance Commission is constituted by the Governor. He also has the power of making advances out of the fund of the contingency of the state in the case of any unforeseen situations.

Judicial powers

The Governor has the power of granting respites, pardon or remission of punishments. He can also remit, suspend or commute the sentence of any convicted person.

The Governor consults the President to appoint the Chief Justice of the High Court of the particular state.

Emergency Powers

In case no political party has a majority in the Vidhan Sabha of the particular state, then the Governor holds the authority to use his diplomacy for the Chief Minister’s Selection.

If an emergency arises, the Governor informs the situation to the President and imposes “President Rule” on behalf of the Indian President. The Governor in such cases overrides the function and advice of the Council of Ministers.

Selection Process of the Governor

Any Governor of India is not elected by any voting system. The President of India only has the power to appoint the governor to a state for 5 years.

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